Note: Another common problem with the 1400 series revolves around old oil that’s coagulated into a stiff gummy tarnish. The results are presser feet with no pressure and bobbin winders that won’t disengage the hand wheel from the needle bar when winding the bobbin. These machines require a thorough detergent head cleaning.  

Thread snarled up under your seam?
Why Threading? Is threading the solution to your problem?
​by Russell Moore
Threading mishaps are a problem encountered by novice and experienced operators alike. I
intermittently, misthread a machine and confront the same results as you will. I've been threading
multiple machines daily for nearly forty years and repairing them for as long. I have a standard
test for threading accuracy and implement it each time I thread a machine. It's a useful tool that
gives me confidence each time I start a seam. You're using a threading technique that been
working for time after time without any incident or mishap. Most operators learn the threading path sequence and thread the machine rather routinely without considering the components. Threading mishaps are a problem encountered by novice and experienced operators alike. I've threaded thousands of machines and intermittently I make a threading error that results in a thread lock or a gob of thread stuck in the needle hole. I thread many machines, a variety of brands and ages, daily and perform dozens of machine repairs each month. I have a standard threading test and implement it each time I thread a machine. It's a useful tool that gives me confidence each time I start a seam. You're using a threading technique that been working for time after time without any incident or mishap. Most operators learn the threading path sequence and thread the machine rather routinely without considering the components. It can be compared to flipping a lights switch to turn on the lights or turning the faucet handle to get water. You don't need to know how electricity is produced if you understand that flipping the switch gives you light. However, if it doesn't work? "If at first you don't succeed, try try again." This leads to frustration. That's why I am encouraging you to develop a foolproof technique. The best way to do this is to get acquainted with the thread handling components and the principles of how they work. You'll learn the sewing machine nomenclature so you'll be able to relate to my instructions.

Note: Review threading path. Begin with needle.
  1. 15c bobbin case: If the bobbin case is inserted from the left side, the needle should be insert with the flat side to the right and the needle will thread from left to right.
  2. If the bobbin case loads in the front, the needle is inserted with the flat side to the rear and the needle threads from front to back.
  3. Another threading clue: The last thread guide, located at the needle clamping screw, will provide a clue as to what side the needle threads from. If the thread guide is on the right, you'll thread the needle from right to left. If on the left, you'll thread the needle left to right. On the front, thread the needle from front to back.
  4. Thread the machine with the presser ft up, carefully pulling the thread between the tension disc. Lower the foot and thread the take up lever, the needle etc. Start the machine with the take up lever at the top.
  5. The exception to the rule -  The Singer 15-91: The hook is designed differently and passes the needle on the left side. The needle is installed with the flat side to the left and threads from right to left. (The last thread guide is also on the right.)

he threading path is a circuit that's designed to feed thread to the hook. The hook picks the thread from the needle and drags it around the bobbin case. The volume of thread needed for this trip around the bobbin case comes from the take up lever. At the end of the hook rotation, the hook is releasing the thread and the take up lever is pulling the excess thread tight to form the stitch. If the thread tension is not engaging the thread, the take up lever will pull additional excess thread from the spool, thus leaving excess thread under the seam that has not been recovered. The take up lever needs the tension to hold the thread tight while it's recovering the thread loop that's been dispersed to make the circuit around the hook. You can observe this process by opening the bobbin case cover while turning the hand wheel by hand. You will see the thread travel around the bobbin case and observe the relationship of the take up lever motion in this thread handling process.

An essential component of this process is the top tension assembly. The tension module has a spring pressing into the tension disc. The pressure on this spring is released when you lift the presser foot lifter lever. Lifting the foot releases the tension on the thread allowing the operator to pull the fabric freely from under the foot without breaking the thread at the eye of the needle. This mechanism is called the tension release linkage and is instrumental when threading. The thread is easily pulled into the tension with the presser foot up. The threading is difficult with the presser foot down unless the thread is pulled intentionally into the tension disc all the way to the tension post. I recommending you always thread the tension module with the presser foot up. You can test threading by lowering the foot and pulling it from the tension. The thread pulls hard when the foot is down, pulls easily with the presser foot up.

Rather than hauling the machine to the repair shop, let’s try to resolve the jam. If the fabric is jammed in the needle hole, you may need to cut it out. Removing the needle plate may be necessary if you want to save the fabric. In the case of a 15 Class hook system (one with the bobbin case you install into the hook through a little compartment door in front of the machine), you’ll want to remove the bobbin case, hook cover and hook. These pieces go back together like pieces of a puzzle and you’ll need to perform this operation when oiling your machine too.

With a top loading bobbin, first trim your threads, raise and remove the presser foot, remove the needle plate, and this should give you access for removing the fabric and removing any thread lock.

Most common thread lock can be eliminated by turning the handwheel backward. Try this first. Top loading plastic bobbin cases can be damaged by a thread lock. Resulting burrs and needle punctures will result in thread handling problems and infinite frustration. See your local dealer for a solution.

Threading your bobbin case
​by Russell Moore

15 Class"Rule of Thumb":  The are two ways to install the bobbin. Either way may work but much like the "toilet paper installation dilemma", inside or outside, I am proposing the proper way. The toilet paper roll should be installed with the paper dispensed from the inside, closest to the wall. The reason for this is that the cat cannot leap and spin the paper off the roll. As for the bobbin, the bobbin should be placed in the case so that when the bobbin thread is drawn from the bobbin case spring the bobbin will be turning clockwise. This installation reduces the possibility of "bobbin  backlash", a result where the bobbin thread tangles in the case. It also makes drawing the thread into the tension slot much easier. If the bobbin does not turn clockwise, turn the bobbin over and reinstall using these instructions. Janome"Top Drop-in Rotary Hook Bobbin Cases":  This is the bobbin case used in all of the new Janome Rotary hook machines. Many other manufacturers use similar bobbin cases. Drop the bobbin into the case, holding the bobbin stationary with one hand while pulling the thread into the tension slot will the other. Pulling the bobbin thread through the tension spring will turn the bobbin counter clockwise. A bobbin installed using this technique makes threading the bobbin case tension spring much easier. If the bobbin does not turn counter clockwise, turn it over and reinstall.

Dripping Steam Generator Iron?
by Russell Moore

Self Threading Sewing Machine Needles
/////
Schmetz packages self threading needles in 5/packs, sizes 12 and 14. We stock both sizes.  My customer is anxious for others to know so I've added this tip to our list. This needle has a slot on the right side of the needle. Using both hands, slide the thread along the right edge of the needle and bingo, your threaded. I've never had a complaint about the needle coming unthreaded.  Another innovation is the top stitching needle. The eye is much longer and much easier to thread. Top stitching needles are made for thicker threads, producing a bolder decorative top stitch. They're available in sizes 12,14 and 16.
NEW COMMERCIAL MOTORS
by Russell Moore

The biggest complaint I've had regarding commercial machines always revolves around speed control. Especially the "take off" speed. Commercial Sewing Machine Motors have been redesigned to implement smoother speed control, quieter operations and more efficient use of electricity. These new designs are called servo motors. I recommend you upgrade your commercial stand to include one of these new motors. Motors range in price from $150-$300. Bolting them up can be done with a crescent wrench or socket driver.
BLANK

Using Top Stitching Thread
by Russell Moore

Eventually every machine operator wants to use heavy duty thread to mend denim jeans or make some upholstery project. Nylon upholstery thread size 69 is a popular choice for upholstery and top stitching thread is a viable alternative. Polyester Mettler Top Stitching thread is commonly available and is available in a plethora of colors. A rule of thumb is to use a needle with a large enough eye so that the thread will travel through the eye without too much friction. "Too Much" is the operative word. Buy top stitching needles for household type machines. These needles have a much longer eye and the larger sizes have even bigger eyes. Top Stitching thread is much thicker, therefore the top tension will produce more drag at an average tension setting, say 4-5 on your tension dial. Knowing this, the same logic can be applied to the bobbin case tension. Top Stitching thread is generally used on "top" with standard sewing weight thread on the bobbin. There is little concern for balancing the tension because all we need is a good looking "top stitch". On the other hand, when using top stitching thread on the bobbin, we are looking for stitch definition on both sides of the seam. Now, using our "top tension logic", we know the bobbin case tension will be producing more drag too. Because bobbin case thread tension is normally negligible, meaning very little, we need to adjust the bobbin case thread tension accordingly. There are two screws that are connected to the bobbin case tension spring. The one at the tail end of the spring is the "anchor spring".  It has no influence on the thread tension but it does hold the spring in place. Do not turn this screw! The other screw is the tension spring pressure adjustment screw. Turning this screw counter clockwise will ease the pressure thus reducing the tension. Turn this screw 1/4 turn counter clockwise and sew test. If the desired stitch definition is not produced, turn the screw another 1/4 turn and sew again. You may have to repeat this one more time. I would not recommend more than 3/4 of a turn. We don't  want this screw to fall out!  If the bobbin side stitch definition is still not pronounced enough, turn the top tension up to 6,7 or even 8.  Sew a seam on a sample patch of the project, checking the stitch quality at each tension setting. One of these settings will produce the results you're seeking.
Threading Your 4/thread Serger
THREADING VIDEO

1.Don’t be too thrifty. Install new needles, using size 14/90 or smaller! Your needle should
be changed each garment. Arm yourself with a good set of serger tweezers!
2.Install serger cone thread on your thread tree and use the stabilizers that come with your machine (those are the little cone shaped things that fit over your spool pins)
3.Make sure the presser foot is up so that your tension release will do its job. If you have no tension release, follow these instructions carefully.
4.You are going to thread your upper looper first, then the lower looper, your right needle and then the left needle. (Some use “over looper” and” under looper” nomenclature.)
5.Upper Looper: Drag the thread from the third spool, to the thread tree guide, down to your first machine thread guide just before the tension module. When pulling the thread through the tension disc, hold the thread spool end of the thread with your right hand and with your left hand slide the thread between the disc or into the tension assembly and through the next thread guide. At this point, pull the thread slightly and turn the tension dial to a higher number to see if you can feel the tension increase or decrease as you turn it to a lower number. (If you have a tension release, you may have to lower the presser foot to engage the tension.) This is how you check to see if your tension is threaded properly.
6.Continue threading, using your tweezers as needed, according to your threading diagram, making sure to thread each thread guide in the thread path.  Missing one guide can cost you and the sequence is essential!
7.Thread through the eye of the upper looper and let the thread lie free. Do not try to put this thread under the presser foot or anywhere on the bed surface.
8.Lower Looper: Thread your lower looper using the same strategy.
9.Needles: Thread your right needle first, using the guides on the right side of the needle holder. Lowering the presser foot will give you more room to maneuver around the needle eye. Use your tweezers when threading the eye of the needle.  With some models, swinging the upper cutter out of the way can be helpful!
10.Thread the left needle. Make sure you have ample length of thread from the needle to drag under the presser foot and to the rear.
11.Place you fabric under the foot along side the upper knife and lower the presser bar. Hold the two needle threads with your left hand, but do not pull them (one if you’re using a 3/thread overlock or rolling a hem). Rotate the hand wheel by hand to make your first stitch. If you feel confident that you’ve threaded correctly, step on the foot control and begin serging. The thread tails can be trimmed when you’ve completed the seam or earlier if you’re wanting to be neat.  Do not pull your fabric. Adjust your stitch length to a longer stitch if you want the fabric to move faster.
12.Once you’ve establish your “stitch chain”, you can begin sewing another piece by simply raising the presser foot “toe” and sliding the material into the cutter. Do not attempt to pull the thread from the rear, as once the “knitting” process has begun, you will not be able to pull the thread from the needle eye.
13.Trouble shooting: Use this as the "Rule of Thumb": If you break your lower looper thread, unthread your needles before rethreading the lower looper. The needle threads wrap around the lower looper and should you re-thread the looper only, you may trap the needle threads and the result will be thread lock, broken needles, a broken needle plate or a broken lower looper.
SEWING TIPS
Tension problems?
by Russell Moore

We get calls daily from operators disgusted with their sewing machines, swearing up and down they have tension problems. 9 times out of 10 they do have tension problems, but their sewing machine doesn't. I always ask “what kind of results are you getting” or “what is the quality of the stitch”. “Does the stitch loop under the seam” or “are their long loops on the bobbin side of the seam?” We generally suggest, before throwing the machine out of the window, rethread the machine making sure the presser foot is up. The tension assembly opens with the presser ft up, making threading the tension easier. The tension release mechanism is designed to disengage when lifting the foot, thereby relieving the thread tension. Removing the fabric from underneath the presser foot is done without breaking the thread at the needle eye. Threading the machine with the presser foot down means threading into tension disc that are closed. This can often result in no top tension, the top thread travels around the bobbin case and not pulling back up with the stroke of the take-up lever. Visit your local sew and vac dealer.  Tell him what your symptoms are before requesting a repair. You may get a quick in and out charge and a valuable sewing lesson rather that a fat repair bill!

Real case senario:
Customer:  I was trying to hem some pants with my Janome machine yesterday and ran into a problem I've had on and off in the past. The thread starts to bunch up on the bottom of the stitch, making a mess I have to pull out and cut away. About a third of the time it works satisfactorily. 

Answer:  I think you threading path through the top tension needs tweeking. Thread with your presser foot up. Holding the thread spool with your right hand, pull the thread along the threading path with your left hand through the thread guides, into the tension, then over the take-up lever. Take your right hand to lower the presser foot. Pull the thread with your left hand to test for resistance. Raise the foot to check for resistance relief. When you draw the thread into the tension, your testing for tension. If there is tension on the thread with the presser foot down, and none when the presser foot is up, you know your tension is threaded properly. Loops form under the seam if there is no top tension. The take up lever delivers slack so the thread will travel around the bobbin case. The take up lever pulls up the slack to form the stitch. If there's no tension, the take up lever pulls more thread from the spool and leaves slack thread deposits under the seam in the form of loops.

It is not a problem with the bobbin, a common misunderstanding. Drop the bobbin into the bobbin case. Thread the bobbin case tension spring. When you pull the thread, the bobbin will turn clockwise.
THREADING YOUR SERGER
707-224-2922

Basics of Sewing Machine Needles
PARTS OF THE NEEDLE
  • Shank-The top part of the needle that goes into your machine. Home-sewing machine needles have a flat back that corresponds with the machine, so it's easy to fit the needle into the machine at the right angle.
  • Shaft-The main part of the needle below the shank.
  • Front groove-The slit on the front of the needle. This is where the thread sits while sewing which protects it from breaking.
  • Scarf-The skinny space in the back of the needle which helps the machine not skip stitches. The scarf is actually longer on stretch needles to accommodate the fabric. 
  • Eye-Just like a hand-sewing needle, the eye is the hole where the thread goes. The difference is sewing machine needles is that the eye is on the opposite side of the needle.

KINDS OF NEEDLES
  • Universal needles-Like the name says, it's universal and can be used for almost anything. The point is sharp with a little bit of rounding. It can't be seen with the naked eye, so I included a picture with examples.
  • Ballpoint needles-The point is very round and is for knit fabric. When sewing with knit fabric, you don't want to pierce the fabric like you do with woven fabric. You want to push the yarns aside. If a yarn is broken in knit, it unravels.
  • Stretch needles-Similar to a ballpoint needle, it just has a deeper scarf to prevent skipped stitches.
  • Sharp needles-Sharper than a universal, this needle is used for wovens, fast straight-stitch sewing (like quilting), and topstitching. It makes a clean stitch because it is so sharp.
  • Jean needles-Thick, sharp needles to accommodate thick fabric.
  • Leather needles-Sharp needles made specifically for sewing on leather. I have never actually sewn on leather, so I don't know much about it.
  • Twin needles-Two needles connected at the top so it can be put in the machine as one. When sewing, the stitching on top is two parallel stitches with a zigzag on the bottom. The zigzag comes from the bobbin thread going back and forth between the two needles. There are also stretch twin needles for sewing on knits and jean twin needles for making that common double thread we see on jeans these days.
NEEDLE SIZES
The European needle measurement is first, and the American needle measurement is second.
  • Very lightweight              70/10
  • lightweight                       80/12
  • medium weight                90/14
  • medium to heavy weight   100/16
  • heavy weight                    110/18
The size I use for almost everything is 80/12. When I'm sewing on jeans or thick fabric, I use 100/16 or 110/18. I would use the 70/10 for sheer fabrics.
Also, the smaller the needle, the thinner the thread size has to be so that it can fit into the front groove. The larger needles can accommodate thick thread. They won't work as well with thin thread because the thread will flop around inside the front groove because the groove is too big.

STITCH LENGTHS
  • Regulation length 2.5 mm long (10-12 stitches per inch)- I use this stitch length for everything I do.
  • Topstitching length 3-4 mm long (6-8 stitches per inch)- I have never used this length and didn't even know there was such a thing. I do lengthen my stitch when I'm tailoring jeans if I'm trying to match the previous stitching.
  • Basting/gathering length 4 mm long (8 stitches per inch)-Basting is a helpful stitch as is gathering. I will be doing a future post in this.
  • Reinforcement stitching 1.5 mm long (15-20 stitches per inch)-This length is for strength. I use it when sewing on loosely woven fabric with corners that are going to be trimmed.
Threading Your Sewing Machine
by Russell Moore

Making sure the needle is inserted properly, the operator should follow the threading
sequence carefully to insure this process is exactly correct.
    1.  Mount the thread on the spool pin so the thread can be delivered without a snag.
On a horizontal thread delivery system, make sure you use the correct thread cap
for the size spool you're using. For vertical spool pins, make sure your thread
spool spins evenly and that the thread doesn't drop down around the spool pin.
    2.  Once the thread spool is mounted properly, raise the presser foot lifter lever and
lock the presser foot in the up position. This allows your tension to relax so that you may seat the thread easily between
the tension disc and bury the thread to the tension post, insuring your thread is embedded properly into the top tension
assembly. Holding the spool with your right hand will keep the thread tight as you drag the thread through the thread path. Using your left hand to thread, pull the thread from the spool to the first thread guide and continue with your left hand pulling the thread down into the tension, pulling up to the catch the take-up spring, then over the top and through the take-up lever. When learned, this is done in one fluid motion. At this point, pull the thread with your left hand, observing no resistance to the thread as you drag it from the take-up lever. Lower the presser bar and pull the thread and feel the resistance resulting from the tension engaging. Understand that the presser bar lifter lever contains the tension release linkage. This little piece of engineering enables you to remove the fabric from underneath the presser foot without breaking the thread. Now, turn the tension dial from zero to nine and feel the differences. The higher the number the greater the resistance. This is important to understand, as later, when using different weights of thread, you'll use this knowledge to set your tension to achieve a proper top stitch and a well defined bobbin or under stitch.
    3.  After completing this tension test, you will take the thread from the take-up lever to next guide and then to the needle clamp thread guide. At this point, lower the presser foot, giving your fingers more room around the needle and thread the eye. Pull five or six inches of loose thread from the needle. (Of course, you wouldn't be doing this if your machine had a built-in needle threader.) This will insure you have enough thread to prevent the needle from unthreading itself providing the take-up lever is not in it highest position. Drop your bobbin in place and pull the bobbin thread through its' tension slot. With your left hand holding the needle thread, the foot still down, rotate the handwheel toward you from the top until the take-up lever reaches its highest position. Pulling the needle thread will lift the bobbin thread through the needle plate. Raise your presser foot and draw the bobbin thread to the surface, placing it with the needle thread to the right or rear under the presser foot. This will allow you to see and control the thread tales as you lower the presser foot onto the fabric to begin your seam. Rotate the hand wheel from the top towards you, making a stitch to insure your not breaking anything. Do not turn the hand wheel backward! This is a definite no-no at any time! Making your first stitch manually, you can be confident your machine will sew as expected. If not, at least you've tried everything  possible. Now, you can make plans for a shop visit. A sewing machine service, including a thorough head cleaning, may produce the needed repair plus surprisingly improve the machine's performance. - END
Inserting the Needle

Inserting the needle properly is the most basic element for sewing performance. We have seasoned seamstresses order service calls because their machines skip stitches or breaks thread. They're literally frustrated by the time they call for help. Generally they've just broke a needle or they're changing sizes. They jam the needle up into the needle clamp, tighten the needle screw, thread it up and take off. After a troubling effort to produce a seam, they forget that the only thing they've done different was to install a different needle. Little do they know that this was the turning point for the machine's performance.

Install the needle with care. You can feel the needle slide into the needle clamp to the needle stop. Sometimes, however, the needle screw becomes an obstruction and doesn't allow the needle to pass, and the needle stops at the screw. It is possible to lock the needle in that position by tightening the needle screw. In so doing, the needle will enter the needle plate too soon and the needle's relationship with the hook will be incorrect and the machine will not sew properly.

I suggest you open the needle screw liberally while inserting the needle. This will insure that the shank will have room in the needle bar to pass the clamping screw. Observe the length of the shank and the relative position of the needle screw. You'll be able to see that the shank passes the relative position of the needle screw and you'll feel the needle hit the needle stop. In this position, you can feel the needle screw has secured the needle properly. Once you've become aware of this potential problem, you'll be able to recognize when the needle isn't inserted all the way up into the needle bar because too much of the shank will be exposed. This practice becomes intuitive once the problem is realized and the solution implemented.
Helpful Links

Here are some links to helpful websites. We are always adding more as we connect with new partners and discover interesting places and spaces that we think our customers would enjoy. If you have a suggestion for a link or wish to have your link added please contact kimberly@reliablecorporation.com

Ironing/Sewing

www.quiltersclubofamerica.com
Quilters Club of America is dedicated to helping members enhance their knowledge, skill, and enjoyment of quilting.

www.quiltoutloud.com
Tired of the same old predictable quilt show? Then you are ready for the online quilting show where anything can happen!

www.allpeoplequilt.com/millionpillowcases/
In 3 easy steps, turn your love of quilting and sewing into messages of comfort, hope and love.

www.fashionincubator.com
Nurturing and supporting fahion entrepreneurs since 1987.

www.fashion-incubator.com
Lessons from the sustainable factory floor.

www.wcaa.org
The Window Coverings Association of America is the only national non-profit trade association dedicated to the retail window coverings industry.

www.nca-i.com
Dedicated to the welfare of well-groomed consumers and the professional cleaners and suppliers who serve them.

Steam Cleaning

global.issa.com/?choice
Industry news specifically focused on the world's cleaning community.

www.cssa.com
Promotes a greater public awareness and understanding of sanitary maintenance principles, while contributing to improved public health and environmental awareness in Canada.

www.pestworld.org
Information about bugs, rodents, pest control, and the growing professional pest management industry.

www.pestworldcanada.net/cpma/about/
Canadian Pest Management Association's mission is to be the leading unified voice in the structural pest management industry across Canada.

www.bscai.org
The Building Service Contractors Association International is dedicated to defining the standard of professionalism for facility service providers.

​Threading your Singer Featherweight: https://singer-featherweight.com/blogs/schoolhouse/67155907-how-to-thread-a-singer-featherweight

Presser Feet, Style and Brands ------------------------------------PRESSER FOOT VIDEO
Common questions revolve around Singer Slant needle narrow bracket and Singer Vertical Needle narrow bracket models produced from 1960 through 1990. Newer model Singer's use standard wide short shank brackets. Feet on current models are nearly interchangeable amongst different brands.

The Shank, or foot holder, and the sole plate (foot) are matching items that permit the needle to line up with the presser foot opening and the needle hole. There is an engineering relationship between the presser bar and the needle bar that demand these dimensions be accurate. The feet and the holder can be engineered differently to produce incompatible results. Manufacturers have done this intentionally to make there products proprietary. Historically, you'll likely find this peculiarity amongst Singer, Brother, Riccar and Bernina brands. Today, most new machines use a "standard" foot holder and presser foot combination. Older model Singers, using the short shank narrow bracket, can use the new style wide bracket and feet. These feet can be procured in a "set" for $20-$30. This is a good upgrade for customers wanting to continue using their older model machines.
LEFT: Singer short shank narrow bracket with feet. Singer Slant needle narrow bracket.

RIGHT: Standard short shank bracket and foot.
LEFT: Singer slant needle narrow bracket zig zag foot. 
RIGHT: Bernina zig zag foot and (far right) Bernina short shank adaptor. The short shank adaptor is designed to use with common short shank brackets and presser feet. 
"Tips" is a chronicle of issues compiled during the course of my 40 year career in the sewing machine and vacuum cleaner industry. These problems occur around the world and each customer will find a story describing their experience herein. This is a work in progress. Please contribute.

Customers call daily seeking solutions to problems and wanting pricing information for repair service. In some cases, re-threading the sewing machine or changing a vacuum belt may solve the problem. The instruction book may not provide a clear explanation. We have attempted to provide one. The concepts are universal. Let us know if it helps!
             - Russell Moore, Napa Sew & Vac Owner
Double click here to add text.All* straight stitch commercial machines use needle system: 231x16, 257x16 or DBx1. We stock this system in sizes 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18. The shank on this needle is slender and round.
All* heavy duty upholstery machines use needle system 135x17. We stock them in sizes 14, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23 and 24.
All* household sewing machines use needle system 705H or 15x1. They have a flat side on the shank. We stock them in many styles and sizes.
There are many needle systems. Each is a description used by the manufacturer. If you inspect the package, you will see a group of needle system numbers, all synonymous. Your needle system will be listed in your owner's manual.
  *With exceptions.
15 Class Bobbin Case
Horizontal Bobbin Case
Pfaff Tension Problems
by Russell Moore

The Pfaff 230 has a unique top tension module. It was developed in the 50’s with a completely different tension compression system that the common Singer 15/91 system using a coil spring. The Pfaff tension completely conceals the mechanism and unless taken completely apart, the problem will be concealed as well. Tension failure is most often caused by a clump of thread remnants lodged between the tension discs. The pressure spring attempts to compress the disc around the thread but the clump of thread is wedged between the discs and prevents the walls of the discs from closing around the thread. Without compression, the thread has no tension and pull easily through tension regardless of where the dial is set. This happens with other tension mechanisms but they’re much easier to diagnose because the tension discs are much easier to spread. Generally a mechanic will spread the disc and shoot a stream of compressed air into the mechanism to remove thread remnants. This is not so easy to do with the Pfaff 230 because the design conceals the mechanism.
Pfaff machines from the late 70’s, like the 1027 Tipmatics, 1400 srs and 7500 srs all have “lay-in” threading. The tension is concealed and can collect remnants of thread producing the same problem. \The clump of thread prevents the tension from closing around the thread, the clump wanders as the thread pulls through the tension and intermittent problems are experience until the clump is lodged in a position to permanently foil tension performance. Once again, lifter the presser foot an shooting a stream of compressed air into the tension can “blow it out.” Sometimes not.
The vapor supply line that connects to the iron is not heated and when cool will produce condensation. Attempting to implement the steam feature results in droplets of water. To avoid menacing droplets on you garment, try a dry run on an absorbent terry towel. This process heats the supply line and flushes unwanted condensation enabling the iron to deliver a smooth stream of hot vapor. Steam generator irons can be used with a cold sole plate, a definite advantage when producing sharp creases on gabardine slacks or when pressing silks and delicate synthetics.
Bernina short shank Adapters
by Russell Moore

There is an adapter for each Bernina model enabling you to use standard short shank presser feet with your Bernina. The adapter attaches to your machine the same way your Bernina feet do. The presser bar then accepts a short shank foot holder so you can use Janome and other universal presser feet, rufflers, binders and a selection of options offered by Bernina.

http://www.bernina.com/en-US/Products-us/BERNINA-products-us/BERNINA-Accessories-us/Special-sewing-accessories-us/Adapter-shank-77-short-us
Rolled Hems ---------------------ROLLED HEM VIDEO
There's another way to roll hems. You don't need a serger. You can do it with a sewing machine.
Rolling a Hem - by Russell Moore
A rolled hem Is easy! Use the right needle only. Remove or withdraw the stitch finger. Adjust the cutting width to suit your desired result. Moving the cutter to the right will leave more fabric to roll. This will add dimension and texture to your rolled hem. Lower upper looper thread tension from 3 to 2. Increase the lower looper tension until you achieve the appearance you want. Increase the needle tension if needed. What is going on? The lower looper is pulling the thread to the backside of the seam. Increasing the needle thread tension will pull the lower looper thread to align under the needle thread. Lowering the upper looper tension will allow the lower looper to pull the thread directly under the needle thread. The upper looper thread is wrapping the edge. All three threads should meet directly under the needle to produce a sweet rolled hem. - END
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Bobbin Case and Hook Race Maintenance
Note: Eddie is an old friend of mine who's taught me allot about machines. In the early 80's he worked for me part time as a mechanic. He is a Swiss Bernina trained machinist, an excellent salesman and a top notch sewing machine technician. Study his video. It's a valuable tool when servicing machines and training customers. Second, is a Janome rotary maintenance video. Note: the tweezer tips are covered using a piece of wire insulation. Next time you visit Honolulu drop in and see him.
Ed's HOOK MAINTENANCE SERVICE VIDEO:
https.//ww.newhomesewingcenter.com/service.html